Gene material – Genetic Science Services http://geneticscienceservices.com/ Tue, 30 Nov 2021 10:56:34 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://geneticscienceservices.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-7.png Gene material – Genetic Science Services http://geneticscienceservices.com/ 32 32 Temperature resistant material for use in nuclear power plant doors https://geneticscienceservices.com/temperature-resistant-material-for-use-in-nuclear-power-plant-doors/ Fri, 26 Nov 2021 14:27:00 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/temperature-resistant-material-for-use-in-nuclear-power-plant-doors/ The safety of nuclear power plants is of paramount importance to the nuclear energy sector. Robust armored doors installed in critical areas are an essential part of nuclear power plants. A study published in Frontiers of energy research presented research on new temperature resistant materials for these critical elements of power plant infrastructure. Study of […]]]>

The safety of nuclear power plants is of paramount importance to the nuclear energy sector. Robust armored doors installed in critical areas are an essential part of nuclear power plants. A study published in Frontiers of energy research presented research on new temperature resistant materials for these critical elements of power plant infrastructure.

Study of a shielding material resistant to high temperatures for the armored doors of nuclear power plants. Image Credit: Parilov / Shutterstock.com

The importance of nuclear shielding

At the start of the atomic age, the potential of radiation to cause death was discovered. This discovery led to the urgent need to create effective protective materials and infrastructure for nuclear power plants to ensure the safety of workers and the environment, as well as to protect vital equipment outside the protected area.

Samples of the polyethylene lead-boron shielding composite.

Samples of the polyethylene lead-boron shielding composite. Image credit: Xiao-ling, L et al., Frontiers in Energy Research

Elements of nuclear power plants that require shielding include reactors, pressure valves and main circuit systems. Conventional materials used for shielding doors include boron steel, epoxy resin, and lead-boron polyethylene. Because armored doors are close to radioactive areas, they must be designed to withstand high levels of temperature, humidity and radiation.

For this reason, shielding materials should not only exhibit superior mechanical properties, performance, and aging resistance to irradiation and hydrothermal pressures over their recommended 20-year lifespan. They must also be able to withstand extreme temperatures of up to 190oC when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) occurs.

Doors and shielding materials go through intense 48-hour LOCA simulations before being approved for installation in nuclear power plants. After this period, the armored doors must remain intact and show no significant deformation. They should also be easy to repair and replace, and all performance indicators should be within acceptable ranges.

Combination of materials in armored doors

The optimal design of an armored door for nuclear power plants combines different materials to protect against neutrons and gamma radiation. Materials like lead absorb and scatter gamma rays through effects such as the Compton effect and the photoelectric effect, and slow down fast neutrons through inelastic scattering. High carbon polyethylene can further moderate intermediate neutrons by elastic scattering, which are then absorbed by tenB of boron carbide.

Test parameters of the environmental conditions of the simulated design basis accident.

Test parameters of the environmental conditions of the simulated design basis accident. Image credit: Xiao-ling, L et al., Frontiers in Energy Research

However, polyethylene-based shielding materials exhibit lower melting temperatures and heat distortion temperatures, which means they cannot withstand the high temperatures caused by a coolant loss accident. This leads to mechanical deformations of materials such as softening and spattering, which affects the effectiveness of the shielding and increases the risk of radiation leakage.

Even when fitted with protective elements such as lead or steel plates, temperatures can still exceed the safe level on the surface of polyethylene-based materials.

Improve materials used in radiation shielding

To study how to improve the thermal resistance and mechanical properties of radiation shielding doors, the study published in Frontiers of energy research introduced a lead-based polyethylene composite shielding material. This material would perform better during the intense heat of a coolant loss accident scenario and would prevent radiation leakage, thereby improving safety levels at nuclear power plants.

The modification of the raw materials and the optimization of the composition design further improved the properties and performance of the composite armor material presented in the research. The door design has been subjected to rigorous and comprehensive performance testing and sample testing. The shielding design was evaluated in the gallery of the Hualong One reactor chamber under normal and accident conditions.

The shielding material composition report was designed using the Monte Carlo method and genetic algorithm. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene has been used with block and graft copolymerizations throughout the mixing process. This improved the resistance of the material to high temperatures and achieved the maximum protective effect.

Simplified MCNP calculation model for the armored door of the reactor pit chamber.

Simplified MCNP calculation model for the armored door of the reactor pit chamber. Image credit: Xiao-ling, L et al., Frontiers in Energy Research

The modification molecule chosen was maleic anhydride. This modifier molecule optimized the uniformity and mechanical properties of elements such as lead and boron carbide which were mixed with polyethylene. Extensive environmental testing has been carried out on factors such as the neutron shielding properties of the composite material, its mechanical performance, its resistance to hydrothermal and irradiation-induced aging, and performance in the event of PRA.

The results of intensive testing of the material have shown superior overall performance. The integrity of the armor was maintained even in the severe atmospheric temperature of a coolant loss accident. Adding a 60mm thick layer of this new material to the reactor tunnel shielding door has been further demonstrated3d to reduce gamma radiation dose levels by five times and the gamma radiation dose levels by ten times. neutron levels. This met the zoning requirements for the armored door.

The future

Research has demonstrated a composite armor material that displays superior performance even under catastrophic crash conditions. Widespread use of the material would significantly improve personnel safety and protect sensitive equipment from damage caused by exposure to radiation.

Further reading

Xiao-ling, L et al. (2021) Study of a shielding material resistant to high temperatures for the armored doors of nuclear power plants [online] Before. Energy Res. | bordersin.org. Available at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenrg.2021.751654/full#h1

Disclaimer: The views expressed herein are those of the author, expressed in a private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of AZoM.com Limited T / A AZoNetwork, the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer is part of the terms and conditions of use of this website.


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The Neel Josh team from Northeastern may have designed a 3D printable material that is alive https://geneticscienceservices.com/the-neel-josh-team-from-northeastern-may-have-designed-a-3d-printable-material-that-is-alive/ Thu, 25 Nov 2021 03:13:25 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/the-neel-josh-team-from-northeastern-may-have-designed-a-3d-printable-material-that-is-alive/ Neel Joshi, associate professor of chemistry and chemical biology, and Avinash Manjula-Basavanna, postdoctoral researcher, are working on programmable microbial ink for 3D printing of living materials, in the Mugar Life Sciences building. Photo by Matthew Modoono / Northeastern University By Eva Botkin-Kowacki News in the North East If humans are ever to live on Mars […]]]>

Neel Joshi, associate professor of chemistry and chemical biology, and Avinash Manjula-Basavanna, postdoctoral researcher, are working on programmable microbial ink for 3D printing of living materials, in the Mugar Life Sciences building. Photo by Matthew Modoono / Northeastern University

By Eva Botkin-Kowacki

News in the North East

If humans are ever to live on Mars or the Moon, we will need to be able to construct buildings to live, sleep, eat, and work in space. According to space agencies, the way to achieve this is to 3D print habitats or their components. But transporting enough Earth-derived materials used for most 3D prints from our planet to another celestial body is not a feasible option.

Biology could solve this problem, says Neel Joshi, associate professor of chemistry and chemical biology at Northeastern. And Joshi’s team may have designed the technology for the job: a 3D printable material that is alive.

“As a tree has integrated cells and it goes from seed to tree, assimilating the resources of its environment in order to implement these structural building programs, what we want to do is a similar thing, but where we provide these programs in the form of DNA which we writing and genetic engineering, ”says Joshi.

Researchers figured out how to program the bacteria Escherichia coli, also known as E. coli, to produce a fully organic ink that can be used to 3D print solid structures. This microbial ink, which is described in a document published Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications, has not yet been tested on a cosmic scale, but scientists have used the gelatinous material to print small shapes, such as a circle, a square and a cone. They also successfully programmed it to construct materials with specified attributes along with other applications that could be useful in medicine.

Neel Joshi, associate professor of chemistry and chemical biology, is working on a programmable microbial ink for 3D printing of living materials, in the Mugar Life Sciences building. Photos by Matthew Modoono / Northeastern University

“We want to use living cells, microbes, like factories to make useful materials,” says Avinash Manjula-Basavanna, postdoctoral fellow at Joshi’s laboratory and lead co-author of the new document. The idea, he says, is to harness the unique properties of the materials that make up living things for a variety of purposes, ranging from therapeutic to industrial.

“Think of it as a platform to build a lot of different things, not just bricks for building construction or construction,” says Joshi. He explains the work by comparing it to how a polymer chemist considers how to design plastic materials that can serve distinct purposes. Some plastics are hard and hold their shape, while others are stretchable and flexible.

“Biology is capable of doing similar things,” says Joshi. “Think of the difference between the hair, which is flexible, and the horns of a deer or a rhino or something like that. They are made of similar materials, but they have very different functions. Biology has figured out how to adjust these mechanical properties using a limited set of building blocks. “

The particular natural building block that scientists take advantage of is a protein produced by the bacteria E. coli. The material, called Curli fibers, is produced by bacterial cells when they attach to a surface and to each other to form a community. The same properties that make Curli fibers a kind of glue for bacteria also make them an attractive material for microbial engineers like Joshi and his colleagues.

The researchers 3D printed small shapes using the microbial ink they developed from the bacteria Escherichia coli, also known as E. coli. Image courtesy of Duraj-Thatte et al., Nature Communications

To make the microbial link, scientists started by cultivating genetically modified products E. coli in a bottle. They fed the bacteria with nutrients for them to multiply, and as they separated, they produced the desired polymers, the Curli fibers. Then, the researchers filtered out the gelatinous polymers and fed this material into a 3D printing device as microbial ink.

Microbes have been used in the past to make ink for 3D printing, but, according to Joshi and Manjula-Basavanna, what sets this microbial ink apart is that it is not mixed with anything else. Their gel is entirely organic.

One of the advantages of a truly living material is that it is, in fact, alive, says Manjula-Basavanna. And that means it can do what living things can do, like heal itself, like the skin does. Under the right conditions, the cells in the microbial gel might just grow more.

It’s not necessarily always growing, says Joshi. For example, if the cells were left alive in the little cone the team made from the microbial gel, “if you were to take that whole cone and put it in a solution of glucose, the cells would eat that glucose and make it.” more. of that fiber and grow the cone into something bigger, ”he says. “There is the possibility of taking advantage of the fact that there are living cells there. But you can also just kill the cells and use them as inert material. “

While the initial gel is made entirely from genetically modified products E. coli, the researchers also tried mixing the ink with other genetically modified microbes in an attempt to use the 3D printed materials for specific purposes. This is how they made a material capable of delivering an anti-cancer drug, which it released when it encountered a specific chemical stimulus. In another experiment, they also programmed another material to trap the toxic chemical bisphenol A (BPA) when it encountered BPA in the environment.

“You might think about taking a bottle cap and printing our material on it so that if there was BPA around it would get sucked into it and not be in your drink,” Joshi says.


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Carson City’s Curry Street Project Delays Due to Material Shortages, 3rd Street Parking Lot Reopened | Carson City Nevada News https://geneticscienceservices.com/carson-citys-curry-street-project-delays-due-to-material-shortages-3rd-street-parking-lot-reopened-carson-city-nevada-news/ Mon, 22 Nov 2021 20:57:43 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/carson-citys-curry-street-project-delays-due-to-material-shortages-3rd-street-parking-lot-reopened-carson-city-nevada-news/ View full picture Delays in sourcing the materials needed to complete the work, such as utility vaults, made this temporary change necessary. The construction period for the Curry Street project has been extended longer than originally planned. The project experienced delays due to material shortages, underground obstructions (old oil reservoirs and difficult utility crossings), dangerous […]]]>

The construction period for the Curry Street project has been extended longer than originally planned. The project experienced delays due to material shortages, underground obstructions (old oil reservoirs and difficult utility crossings), dangerous air quality in our fire season, and torrential rains at the start of the winter. season that hampered construction.

We thank the businesses / area residents and the public accessing downtown for your patience and understanding as we face these challenges. The City and the contractor are committed to completing the remainder of the project on time and providing an improved downtown corridor for all users.

The 3rd Street parking lot reopened to the public on November 18. Partial parking lot closures will take place to install landscaping, drip irrigation lines and lighting in the future.

One-way northbound traffic between 5th and Musser will continue as the contractor works on the west side of the street to complete the basement and sidewalk improvements. Temporary on-street parking during construction will be removed once the parking lot is reopened to allow for construction along the street.

At the site, there are currently missing sections of sidewalk that have been finished with asphalt to minimize the danger to pedestrians walking in the corridor. Delays in sourcing the materials needed to complete the work, such as utility vaults, made this temporary change necessary.

Most of the landscaping improvements (sidewalk and asphalt removal to replace with concrete) along Curry are expected to be completed by the end of the year. The removal of overhead and communication power lines, landscaping, drip irrigation, and reconnection of building electrical services will continue diligently through January 2022.

A public meeting will be held at 10:00 a.m. at the west end of McFadden Square on Monday, November 22 for anyone wishing to ask questions about the project or raise concerns.

McFadden Square and businesses within the project boundary are open during construction.

Those wishing periodic updates on the project can register via email by going to http://carsonproud.com/contactus/ or can text Carson Proud at (775) 522-5722 to receive SMS notifications.


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Bo Nix donates bulletin board material to Alabama before Iron Bowl https://geneticscienceservices.com/bo-nix-donates-bulletin-board-material-to-alabama-before-iron-bowl/ Mon, 22 Nov 2021 19:43:23 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/bo-nix-donates-bulletin-board-material-to-alabama-before-iron-bowl/ Auburn quarterback Bo Nix won’t play in the Iron Bowl on Saturday due to a recent season-ending ankle injury, but he’s sure to be a talking point in the Alabama locker room ahead. the big game. During his weekly appearance on “The Next Round” on Monday, Nix shared some of his thoughts on Alabama’s shootout […]]]>

Auburn quarterback Bo Nix won’t play in the Iron Bowl on Saturday due to a recent season-ending ankle injury, but he’s sure to be a talking point in the Alabama locker room ahead. the big game.

During his weekly appearance on “The Next Round” on Monday, Nix shared some of his thoughts on Alabama’s shootout victory over Arkansas. He mentioned some of the game’s “controversial calls”. He said it is common knowledge that the Crimson Tide tends to benefit from such calls. Nix was happy to elaborate.

“I think you can watch the game and any unbiased person would think something is different,” Nix said. “It’s like that. It’s kind of like it always has been. It’s part of the game. They have good players. You can’t take that away from them.

Alabama quarterback Bryce Young was asked about Nix’s comments, and he said talking is a “external factor”On which the tide cannot waste energy.

There were many calls in Alabama’s 42-35 win over Arkansas that benefited Nick Saban’s side. CBS rules analyst Gene Steratore said on the show that the Razorbacks were on the wrong side of several bad calls.

Of course, Alabama fans might point out that Nix didn’t complain when he took a huge hiatus from one of the season’s most controversial plays last year.

Great teams and great coaches tend to get the benefit of the doubt. This is not a new concept in sports, and it is certainly a concept that applies to Saban and Alabama.



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Canyons School District Withdraws Books After Complaints Of “Sexually Explicit” Material | Utah News – Oakland News Now https://geneticscienceservices.com/canyons-school-district-withdraws-books-after-complaints-of-sexually-explicit-material-utah-news-oakland-news-now/ Fri, 19 Nov 2021 00:11:14 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/canyons-school-district-withdraws-books-after-complaints-of-sexually-explicit-material-utah-news-oakland-news-now/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z0ETWY9DVbw Oakland News Now – Canyons School District Withdraws Books After Complaints Over ‘Sexually Explicit’ Material – video made by the YouTube channel with the logo in the upper left corner of the video. OaklandNewsNow.com is the original blog post for this type of video blog content. Canyons School District is withdrawing books after complaints […]]]>

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z0ETWY9DVbw

Oakland News Now –

Canyons School District Withdraws Books After Complaints Over ‘Sexually Explicit’ Material

– video made by the YouTube channel with the logo in the upper left corner of the video. OaklandNewsNow.com is the original blog post for this type of video blog content.

Canyons School District is withdrawing books after complaints of “sexually explicit” material.

Going through IFTTT

Note from Zennie62Media and OaklandNewsNow.com: This video blog post shows the full, live operation of the latest updated version of an experimental network of Zennie62Media, Inc. mobile multimedia video blogging system that was launched in June 2018 This is an important part of Zennie62Media, Inc.’s new and innovative approach to news media production. What we call “the third wave of media”. The uploaded video is from a YouTube channel. When the FOX 13 News Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah YouTube video channel uploads a video, it is automatically uploaded and automatically formatted on the Oakland News Now site and on social media pages created and owned by Zennie62. The overall objective here, in addition to our, is the on-scene reporting of news, interviews, observations and events on smartphones, in real time, anywhere in the world and in seconds and not within hours – is the use of the existing YouTube social network. graphic on any topic in the world. Now the news is reported with a smartphone and also by promoting the current content on YouTube: no heavy and expensive camera or even a laptop is needed, nor to have a camera crew to film what is already. on Youtube. The secondary objective is faster and very inexpensive production and distribution of media content information. We have found that there is a lag between the length of the post and the production time and revenue generated. With this the problem is much less, but by no means solved. Zennie62Media is constantly striving to improve the system’s network coding and is looking for interested multimedia content and technology partners.

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Lamin C is important for keeping the genetic material of a cell tidy https://geneticscienceservices.com/lamin-c-is-important-for-keeping-the-genetic-material-of-a-cell-tidy/ Tue, 16 Nov 2021 08:53:20 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/lamin-c-is-important-for-keeping-the-genetic-material-of-a-cell-tidy/ In a study with mouse cells grown in the lab, researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine say they have found that a protein that helps form a structural network beneath the surface of the cell’s “command center” – its nucleus – is essential. to ensure that the DNA inside stays tidy. The new experiments distinguish the […]]]>

In a study with mouse cells grown in the lab, researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine say they have found that a protein that helps form a structural network beneath the surface of the cell’s “command center” – its nucleus – is essential. to ensure that the DNA inside stays tidy. The new experiments distinguish the role of the protein, called lamin C, revealing its utility in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of genetic disorders related to DNA disorganization, such as the disease of rapid aging known as progeria, muscular dystrophy and cardiac disorders linked to mutations. in these proteins and related proteins.

“The impact of these findings could extend beyond known laminopathic diseases, as it appears that lamin C is important for the organization of the genome in general. We just don’t know at this point how lamin C behaves in other genome-disordered diseases, ”says Karen Reddy, Ph.D., assistant professor of biological chemistry at Johns University School of Medicine. Hopkins.

She continues: “A lot of people are familiar with the idea that genetic mutations – or errors in the genetic code – cause inherited diseases. However, highly disorganized genes could have as big an impact as mutations on the cause of the disease. “

Reddy notes that genetic testing generally does not take into account the organizational mechanisms of DNA, which can provide an important basis for understanding genetic diseases.

Reddy and his research team published the results of their study published on November 14 in Genome biology.

The nucleus of every human cell contains about 6 feet of tightly coiled DNA that contains the genetic instructions for every structure and function in the body. In order for the cell to continue to function, these strands of DNA must be organized into usable parts. Laminated proteins, which attach to the surface of the nucleus, do so by attaching themselves to segments of DNA, keeping them separate and tidy.

“Each compartment created by a laminate acts like a kitchen utensil drawer, keeping knives, forks and spoons within easy reach, and more rarely items used as serving pieces out of the way until you need it, ”says Reddy.

In an effort to better understand how lamins influence the way the cell uses and organizes its DNA, Reddy and his team used fluorescent dyes to track three types of protein lamins – A, B, and C – through cell division, when a cell’s DNA is duplicated and then split between two offspring cells.

While lamin B has been easily distinguished in previous studies, lamin A and lamin C have historically been treated as duplicate proteins because they are created from the same gene, says Reddy. However, there was growing evidence that type A and C lamins had distinct roles.

To sort them out, Reddy’s research team genetically engineered mouse embryonic cells to remove either the gene that creates lamin B or the gene that contains both A and C lamins. Then, the researchers used microscopes to observe the behaviors of the lamins and if the nuclear cells DNA remained organized while it divided.

The research team found that the nuclear DNA in cells lacking lamin B looked roughly like normal dividing cells, implying that lamin B may not be essential for DNA reorganization after cell division. However, nuclear DNA in cells lacking the A and C lamins did not reorganize cleanly, becoming tangled and unsorted from its normal compartments in the nucleus.

“It looked like there was a rowdy party in the normally well-organized kitchen,” says Reddy, cells devoid of lamins A and C. “Things were out of place and the DNA strands were active and inactive were interspersed and separated from the laminae at the edge of the nucleus.

Next, the researchers used a series of specialized chemical reagents to deactivate lamin A or lamin C in mouse cells, allowing them to test each protein independently.

Cells without lamin A appeared to be able to reorganize after cell division as efficiently as normal cells. However, the organization of nuclear DNA again fell into disarray in cells without lamin C.

Reddy says that a reason for this distinction has been revealed in the behavior of lamin C in dividing cells. His team found that while lamins A and B quickly bind to the surface of a newly formed nucleus and begin to grab sections of DNA, lamin C remains scattered throughout the nucleus and retains a special molecular tag called phosphorylation. Researchers believe this suggests that this modified C-lamin helps guide DNA into place during reorganization. Once DNA is organized, lamin C loses its molecular tag and associates with the rest of the lamins on the periphery of the nucleus.

“There’s this exquisite choreography of the different lamin proteins and DNA to get things as they should be,” says Reddy.

The results suggest that new tests could be developed to distinguish between lamins A and C and should be taken into account when screening for certain genetic diseases involving laminated proteins or other proteins at the periphery of the nucleus.

The gene that codes for lamins A and C is associated with inherited diseases that include three forms of muscular dystrophy: familial partial lipodystrophy, a condition that causes abnormal distribution of fat tissue; progeria; and several heart muscle disorders.

The researchers note that these results raise several new questions, including the role of lamins in the organization and regulation of DNA during development. The team hopes to identify how the protein lamins and the genome behave when a specific type of lamin is mutated or disrupted, as there appears to be an interaction between the different forms of lamins. They also plan to study the cellular pathways that control protein lamins, in particular for lamin C, in order to better distinguish the importance of its role in DNA control.

Reference: Wong X, Hoskins VE, Melendez-Perez AJ, Harr JC, Gordon M, Reddy KL. Lamin C is needed to establish the organization of the genome after mitosis. Biol genome. 2021; 22 (1): 305. do I: 10.1186 / s13059-021-02516-7

This article was republished from the following materials. Note: Material may have been modified for length and content. For more information, please contact the cited source.


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Standards necessary to guarantee the volumes and quality of the raw material https://geneticscienceservices.com/standards-necessary-to-guarantee-the-volumes-and-quality-of-the-raw-material/ Tue, 16 Nov 2021 08:00:00 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/standards-necessary-to-guarantee-the-volumes-and-quality-of-the-raw-material/ Adding capacity, boosting efficiency, and reducing bottlenecks within the cell harvesting infrastructure are key to ensuring the availability of high-quality starting material, the company said. , which provides cell supply services for allogeneic cell or gene therapy, as part of its range of services. . Any misstep in this area can lead to significant and […]]]>

Adding capacity, boosting efficiency, and reducing bottlenecks within the cell harvesting infrastructure are key to ensuring the availability of high-quality starting material, the company said. , which provides cell supply services for allogeneic cell or gene therapy, as part of its range of services. .

Any misstep in this area can lead to significant and costly setbacks and delays.

Optimizing the identification, procurement, collection and delivery of starting material from allogeneic donors is therefore essential, said Chris McClain, senior vice president, sales and business development, BTMB.

“At this time, no one knows exactly who or what consortium of suppliers may be able to deliver the potential trade volumes. An additional challenge will then be to guarantee these volumes in a consistent and high-quality manner.

“We, as suppliers, are working on this issue, but we also need the participation of the industry”,he told BioPharma-Reporter.

He calls on cell and gene therapy (CGT) developers to step up their engagement with BTMB and other suppliers to develop standards as part of efforts to ensure a reliable supply chain for raw materials.

Personalization challenge

Right now there’s a lot of customization, a lot of customization in terms of allogeneic donor seed request requests and I think it’s not sustainable, and I would bet a lot of things are unnecessary.

“Let’s eliminate what is essential and what is not for the betterment of the industry. “

There are a variety of different starting materials that the developers of CGT might want to craft with: from whole blood to stimulated apheresis to bone marrow to basic blood units.


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Watch the video of Jethro Tull’s Shoshana Sleeping – their first new track in 18 years https://geneticscienceservices.com/watch-the-video-of-jethro-tulls-shoshana-sleeping-their-first-new-track-in-18-years/ https://geneticscienceservices.com/watch-the-video-of-jethro-tulls-shoshana-sleeping-their-first-new-track-in-18-years/#respond Fri, 05 Nov 2021 11:00:44 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/watch-the-video-of-jethro-tulls-shoshana-sleeping-their-first-new-track-in-18-years/ Jethro Tull made a video for Sleeping shoshana, the first single from their next album, The Zealot Gene, which is due to be published by InsideOut on January 28. The zealot gene is Jethro Tull’s second studio album this century, and the first since The Jethro Tull Christmas Album in 2003. Along with founder Ian […]]]>

Jethro Tull made a video for Sleeping shoshana, the first single from their next album, The Zealot Gene, which is due to be published by InsideOut on January 28.

The zealot gene is Jethro Tull’s second studio album this century, and the first since The Jethro Tull Christmas Album in 2003. Along with founder Ian Anderson, the group’s current lineup includes guitarist Joe Parrish-James, drummer Scott Hammond, pianist John O’Hara and bassist David Goodier. Florian Opahle also plays guitar on the album.


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BLUEBIRD BIO, INC. : conclusion of a major definitive agreement, conclusion of the acquisition or disposal of assets, change of directors or senior managers, disclosure of FD regulations, financial statements and supporting documents (form 8-K) https://geneticscienceservices.com/bluebird-bio-inc-conclusion-of-a-major-definitive-agreement-conclusion-of-the-acquisition-or-disposal-of-assets-change-of-directors-or-senior-managers-disclosure-of-fd-regulations-financial-s/ https://geneticscienceservices.com/bluebird-bio-inc-conclusion-of-a-major-definitive-agreement-conclusion-of-the-acquisition-or-disposal-of-assets-change-of-directors-or-senior-managers-disclosure-of-fd-regulations-financial-s/#respond Thu, 04 Nov 2021 11:33:11 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/bluebird-bio-inc-conclusion-of-a-major-definitive-agreement-conclusion-of-the-acquisition-or-disposal-of-assets-change-of-directors-or-senior-managers-disclosure-of-fd-regulations-financial-s/ Item 1.01 Entry into a Material Definitive Agreement. Agreements with 2seventy bio On November 4, 2021, bluebird bio, Inc. ("bluebird bio") completed the previously announced separation of its oncology programs and portfolio, and certain related assets and liabilities, into a separate, independent, publicly traded company (the "Separation"). The Separation was effected by means of a […]]]>
Item 1.01 Entry into a Material Definitive Agreement.
Agreements with 2seventy bio
On November 4, 2021, bluebird bio, Inc. ("bluebird bio") completed the
previously announced separation of its oncology programs and portfolio, and
certain related assets and liabilities, into a separate, independent, publicly
traded company (the "Separation"). The Separation was effected by means of a
distribution of all of the outstanding shares of common stock of 2seventy bio,
Inc. ("2seventy bio") in which each bluebird bio stockholder received one share
of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of 2seventy bio for every three
shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of bluebird bio held as of
the close of business on October 19, 2021 (the "Distribution").
Separation Agreement
In connection with the Separation, bluebird bio entered into a separation
agreement (the "Separation Agreement") with 2seventy bio, dated as of November
3, 2021, that, among other things, set forth bluebird bio's agreements with
2seventy bio regarding the principal actions to be taken in connection with the
Separation, including the Distribution. The effective time of the Distribution
was 12:01 a.m. on November 4, 2021. The Separation Agreement identifies assets
transferred to, liabilities assumed by and contracts assigned to 2seventy bio as
part of the Separation, and it provides for when and how these transfers,
assumptions and assignments occur. The purpose of the Separation Agreement is to
provide 2seventy bio and bluebird bio with assets to operate their respective
businesses and retain or assume liabilities related to those assets. Each of
2seventy bio and bluebird bio agreed to releases, with respect to pre-Separation
claims, and cross indemnities with respect to post-Separation claims, that are
principally designed to place financial responsibility for the obligations and
liabilities allocated to 2seventy bio under the Separation Agreement with
2seventy bio and financial responsibility for the obligations and liabilities
allocated to bluebird bio under the Separation Agreement. bluebird bio and
2seventy bio are also each subject to mutual 12-month employee non-solicit and
non-hire restrictions, subject to certain customary exceptions.
Tax Matters Agreement
bluebird bio and 2seventy bio also entered into a tax matters agreement, dated
as of November 3, 2021, governing bluebird bio's and 2seventy bio's respective
rights, responsibilities and obligations with respect to taxes (including taxes
arising in the ordinary course of business and taxes, if any, incurred as a
result of any failure of the distribution and certain related transactions to
qualify as tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes), tax attributes, the
preparation and filing of tax returns, the control of audits and other tax
proceedings, and assistance and cooperation in respect of tax matters).
In addition, the tax matters agreement imposes certain restrictions on 2seventy
bio (including restrictions on share issuances, business combinations, sales of
assets and similar transactions) that are designed to preserve the tax-free
status of the Distribution and certain related transactions. The tax matters
agreement provides special rules that allocate tax liabilities in the event the
Distribution, together with certain related transactions, is not tax-free. In
general, under the terms of the tax matters agreement, if the distribution,
together with certain related transactions, were to fail to qualify as a
transaction that is generally tax-free, for U.S. federal income tax purposes,
under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, and if and to the extent that
such failure results from a prohibited change of control in bluebird bio under
Section 355(e) of the Code or an acquisition of bluebird bio stock or assets or
certain actions, omissions or failures to act, by bluebird bio, then bluebird
bio will bear any resulting taxes, interest, penalties and other costs. If and
to the extent that such failure results from a prohibited change of control in
2seventy bio under Section 355(e) of the Code or an acquisition of 2seventy
bio's stock or assets or certain actions by 2seventy bio, then 2seventy bio will
indemnify bluebird bio for any resulting taxes, interest, penalties and other
costs, including any reductions in bluebird bio's net operating loss
carryforwards or other tax assets. If such failure does not result from a
prohibited change of control in bluebird bio or 2seventy bio under Section
355(e) of the Code and both 2seventy bio and bluebird bio are responsible for
such failure, liability will be shared according to relative fault. If neither
2seventy bio nor bluebird bio is responsible for such failure, bluebird bio will
bear any resulting taxes, interest, penalties and other costs.

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Employee Matters Agreement
In connection with the Separation, bluebird bio also entered into an employee
matters agreement with 2seventy bio, dated as of November 3, 2021. The employee
matters agreement allocates assets, liabilities and responsibilities relating to
the employment, compensation and employee benefits of bluebird bio and 2seventy
bio employees, and other related matters, in connection with the Separation,
including the treatment of outstanding bluebird bio incentive equity awards and
certain retirement and welfare benefit obligations. The employee matters
agreement generally provides that, unless otherwise specified, 2seventy bio is
responsible for liabilities associated with employees who transfer to 2seventy
bio and employees whose employment terminated prior to the distribution but who
primarily supported the 2seventy bio business, and bluebird bio is responsible
for liabilities associated with other employees, including employees retained by
bluebird bio.
. . .


Item 2.01 Completion of the Acquisition or Disposition of Assets.
As described above, on November 4, 2021, bluebird bio completed the Separation
and Distribution. In the Distribution, bluebird bio stockholders received one
share of 2seventy bio common stock for every three shares of bluebird bio common
stock held at the close of business on October 19, 2021. bluebird bio did not
issue fractional shares of 2seventy bio's common stock in the distribution.
Instead, bluebird bio's stockholders are entitled to receive cash in lieu of
fractional 2seventy bio shares, subject to applicable tax withholding.
In connection with the Separation, bluebird bio assigned the material agreements
listed below to 2seventy bio:
•Amended and Restated Master Collaboration Agreement by and between bluebird
bio, Inc. and Celgene Corporation, dated June 3, 2015
•Amendment No. 1 to Amended and Restated Master Collaboration Agreement by and
between bluebird bio, Inc. and Celgene Corporation, dated February 17, 2016
•Amendment No. 2 to Amended and Restated Master Collaboration Agreement by and
between bluebird bio, Inc. and Celgene Corporation, dated September 28, 2017
•Amended and Restated License Agreement by and between bluebird bio, Inc. and
Celgene Corporation, dated February 16, 2016
•Second Amended and Restated License Agreement by and between bluebird bio, Inc.
and Celgene Corporation and Celgene European Investment Company LLC, dated May
8, 2020
•Amended and Restated Co-Development, Co-Promote and Profit Share Agreement by
and between bluebird bio, Inc. and Celgene Corporation and Celgene European
Investment Company LLC, dated March 26, 2018
•First Amendment to Amended and Restated Co-Development, Co-Promote and Profit
Share Agreement by and between bluebird bio, Inc. and Celgene Corporation and
Celgene European Investment Company LLC, dated May 8, 2020
•Lease, dated September 21, 2015, by and between bluebird bio, Inc. and ARE-MA
Region No. 40 LLC


Item 5.02 Departure of directors or certain officers; Election of directors; Appointment of certain officers; Compensatory provisions of certain agents. At November 4, 2021, as part of the Separation, Daniel lynch, Sarah glickman, Ramy ibrahim, Denice Torres, Marcela maus and Guillaume Sellers each has resigned from the board of directors of bluebird bio (the “Board”). There is no disagreement between Mr. Lynch, Mrs. Glickman, Dr Ibrahim, Mrs. Torres, Dr Maus, and Dr Sellers and bluebird bio on any matter relating to the operations, policies or practices of bluebird bio.

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Additionally, on November 4, 2021, in connection with the Separation, Nick
Leschly, William Baird and Philip Gregory resigned as bluebird bio's chief
executive officer, chief financial officer and chief scientific officer,
respectively.
In connection with and effective as of the Separation, Andrew Obenshain, 48, was
appointed as bluebird bio's president, chief executive officer and principal
executive officer and member of the Board. Mr. Obenshain has served as bluebird
bio's President, Severe Genetic Diseases since August 2020 and its senior vice
president, head of Europe since 2016. Prior to that, from September 2015 to
September 2016, Mr. Obenshain was the general manager of France and Benelux at
Shire Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and from 2007 to 2013, he held roles of increasing
responsibility at Genzyme. Mr. Obenshain received his MBA from Northwestern
University's Kellogg School of Management, and his B.A. in genetics, cell and
developmental biology from Dartmouth College.
There are no (i) family relationships, as defined in Item 401 of Regulation S-K,
between Mr. Obenshain and any of bluebird bio's executive officers or directors,
or any person nominated to become a director or executive officer, (ii)
arrangements or understandings between Mr. Obenshain and any other person
pursuant to which Mr. Obenshain was appointed as chief executive officer of
bluebird bio or (iii) transactions in which Mr. Obenshain has an interest
requiring disclosure under Item 404(a) of Regulation S-K. In connection with his
appointment as bluebird bio's chief executive officer and principal executive
officer, Mr. Obenshain's annual base salary was increased from $550,000 to
$625,000, and his annual target bonus was increased to 60% of his base salary.
In connection with and effective as of the Separation, Gina Consylman, 49, was
appointed as bluebird bio's chief financial officer and principal financial
officer. Prior to joining bluebird bio, Ms. Consylman served as senior vice
president, chief financial officer of Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc., since
November 2017. From 2014 to 2017, Ms. Consylman held roles of increasing
responsibility at Ironwood. Ms. Consylman holds a B.S. in accounting from
Johnson & Wales University and a M.S. in taxation from Bentley University.
There are no (i) family relationships, as defined in Item 401 of Regulation S-K,
between Ms. Consylman and any of bluebird bio's executive officers or directors,
or any person nominated to become a director or executive officer, (ii)
arrangements or understandings between Ms. Consylman and any other person
pursuant to which Ms. Consylman was appointed as chief financial officer of
bluebird bio or (iii) transactions in which Ms. Consylman has an interest
requiring disclosure under Item 404(a) of Regulation S-K.
In connection with and effective as of the Separation, Jason Cole, 49, was
appointed as bluebird bio's chief business officer. Mr. Cole has served as
bluebird bio's chief operating and legal officer since February 2019. Prior to
this role, Mr. Cole served as bluebird bio's chief legal officer since March
2016. Mr. Cole received an A.B. in Government from Dartmouth College and a J.D.
from Columbia University School of Law.
There are no (i) family relationships, as defined in Item 401 of Regulation S-K,
between Mr. Cole and any of bluebird bio's executive officers or directors, or
any person nominated to become a director or executive officer, (ii)
arrangements or understandings between Mr. Cole and any other person pursuant to
which Mr. Cole was appointed as chief business officer of bluebird bio or (iii)
transactions in which Mr. Cole has an interest requiring disclosure under Item
404(a) of Regulation S-K.
In connection with and effective as of the Separation, Jessica Whitten, 45, was
appointed as bluebird bio's chief accounting officer and principal accounting
officer. Ms. Whitten has served as bluebird bio's vice president of accounting
and global controller since February 2021. Prior to this role, Ms. Whitten
served as bluebird bio's vice president of internal audit since November 2019.
Prior to that, from 2017 to 2019, Ms. Whitten was vice president of internal
audit with American Renal Associates and from 2015 through 2017 Ms. Whitten was
with the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston as assistant vice president and
assistant general auditor. Ms. Whitten received a B.A. in accounting and English
from Bentley University.
There are no (i) family relationships, as defined in Item 401 of Regulation S-K,
between Ms. Whitten and any of bluebird bio's executive officers or directors,
or any person nominated to become a director or executive officer, (ii)
arrangements or understandings between Ms. Whitten and any other person pursuant
to which Ms. Whitten was appointed as chief accounting officer of bluebird bio
or (iii) transactions in which Ms. Whitten has an interest requiring disclosure
under Item 404(a) of Regulation S-K. In connection with her appointment as
bluebird

————————————————– ——————————

the accounting director and chief accountant of bio, Mrs. Whitten’s the annual base salary has increased from $ 290,000 To $ 300,000.

Article 7.01 Regulation FD Disclosure. At November 4, 2021, bluebird bio issued a press release in connection with the completion of the separation. A copy of the press release is attached hereto as Exhibit 99.1.



Item 9.01 Financial Statements and Exhibits.
(b) Pro forma financial information. The unaudited pro forma consolidated
financial statements of bluebird bio, Inc., giving effect to the Separation, and
the related notes thereto, are attached hereto as Exhibit 99.2.
(d) Exhibits.
 Exhibit No.                                   Description
     2.1*           Separation Agreement, dated as of November 3, 2021, by and between
                  bluebird bio, Inc. and 2seventy bio, Inc.
     10.1           Tax Matters Agreement, dated as of November 3, 2021, by and between
                  bluebird bio, Inc. and 2seventy bio, Inc.
    10.2*           Employee Matters Agreement, dated as of November 3, 2021, by and
                  between bluebird bio, Inc. and 2seventy bio, Inc.
    10.3*           Intellectual Property License Agreement, dated as of November 3,
                  2021, by and between bluebird bio, Inc. and 2seventy bio, Inc.
    10.4*           Transition Services Agreement, dated as of November 3, 2021, by and
                  between bluebird bio, Inc. and 2seventy bio, Inc.
    10.5*           Transition Services Agreement, dated as of November 3, 2021, by and
                  between 2seventy bio, Inc. and bluebird bio, Inc.
     99.1           Press Release of bluebird bio, Inc. dated November 4, 2021
     99.2           bluebird bio, Inc. Unaudited Pro Forma Consolidated Financial
                  Statements
     104          Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL
                  document)

* Annexes and exhibits have been omitted in accordance with Article 601 (b) (2) of Regulation SK. bluebird bio hereby undertakes to provide copies of all omitted schedules and exhibits upon request of the United States Securities Commission.

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Companies provide materials for vaccines https://geneticscienceservices.com/companies-provide-materials-for-vaccines/ https://geneticscienceservices.com/companies-provide-materials-for-vaccines/#respond Thu, 04 Nov 2021 10:07:00 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/companies-provide-materials-for-vaccines/ TOKYO >> As foreign pharmaceutical companies have drawn attention to their COVID-19 vaccine development, a diverse list of Japanese companies are providing vital raw materials for vaccine production. Yamasa Corp., a Shoyu company founded in 1645, for example, supplies pseudouridin, which is important for the production of messenger RNA (mRNA). Messenger RNA is an important […]]]>

TOKYO >> As foreign pharmaceutical companies have drawn attention to their COVID-19 vaccine development, a diverse list of Japanese companies are providing vital raw materials for vaccine production.

Yamasa Corp., a Shoyu company founded in 1645, for example, supplies pseudouridin, which is important for the production of messenger RNA (mRNA). Messenger RNA is an important genetic material used in Pfizer and Moderna vaccines.

Pseudoouridin has been the key to the rapid development of coronavirus vaccines. Messenger RNA had been considered difficult to use in vaccines because its introduction into the body caused inflammation, a reaction of the immune system.

But Hungarian researcher Katalin Kariko and a colleague found that by replacing uridine with pseudouridin, a component of mRNA, mRNA was easily retained in the body.

Yamasa entered the pharmaceutical field in the 1970s using its research to make umami ingredients. It has exported pseudouridin abroad since the 1980s.

Until recently, Yamasa’s expeditions were small and used primarily for research purposes, but the pandemic was a game-changer. The company’s sales of pseudouridin have increased “dozens of times” since the pandemic.

Yamasa’s sales for the fiscal year ending December 2020 reached $ 508.2 million, of which around 10% was from its pharmaceuticals business. But the company has plans. “We want to make pharmaceuticals a pillar of our income on par with our pillar, soy sauce,” said Toshitada Noguchi, Managing Director of Yamasa.

Meanwhile, large glassmaker AGC Inc. is engaged to produce plasmid DNA, a raw material for Pfizer’s vaccine, at its plant in Germany. Plasmid DNA acts as a mold for the transcription of genetic information into mRNA. The company plans to expand its production line to meet the growing demand.

Other companies are involved in the production of vaccines. Fujifilm Corp. is engaged to manufacture vaccines developed by Tokyo-based biotech startup VLP Therapeutics Japan LLC, and equipment owned by chemicals maker Daicel Corp. will be used to produce DNA vaccines jointly developed by medical startup AnGes Inc. and Osaka University.


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