Genetic study – Genetic Science Services http://geneticscienceservices.com/ Wed, 01 Dec 2021 10:57:16 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://geneticscienceservices.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-7.png Genetic study – Genetic Science Services http://geneticscienceservices.com/ 32 32 Genetic study of ancient teeth debunks theory that Native Americans originated in Japan https://geneticscienceservices.com/genetic-study-of-ancient-teeth-debunks-theory-that-native-americans-originated-in-japan/ Tue, 30 Nov 2021 21:25:52 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/genetic-study-of-ancient-teeth-debunks-theory-that-native-americans-originated-in-japan/ COLLEGE STATION, Texas – The scientific community has long wondered how, when, and who first traveled to the Americas many years ago. The long-accepted theory, based on tool similarities, was that the earliest inhabitants of Japan, known as the Jomon, arrived on the continent 15,000 years ago. However, a recent study now contradicts this theory. […]]]>

COLLEGE STATION, Texas – The scientific community has long wondered how, when, and who first traveled to the Americas many years ago. The long-accepted theory, based on tool similarities, was that the earliest inhabitants of Japan, known as the Jomon, arrived on the continent 15,000 years ago. However, a recent study now contradicts this theory.

Richard Scott, lead author of the study and professor at the Center for the Study of the First Americans at Texas A&M University, examined the teeth of Jomon and ancient Native Americans. He found few connections in the genetics of their teeth. In fact, only seven percent of the samples showed a connection to non-Arctic Native Americans.

“These people (the Jomons) who lived in Japan 15,000 years ago are an unlikely source for Native Americans. Neither skeletal biology nor genetics indicate a link between Japan and the Americas. The most likely source of the Native American population appears to be Siberia, ”Professor Scott said in a press release.

Scott is a respected researcher in the field of ancient human teeth with over half a century of experience.

“We don’t dispute the idea that ancient Native Americans arrived via the Pacific Northwest, only the theory that they originated from the Jomon people in Japan,” Scott adds.

Scott and his team found little overlap of the maternal and paternal lines, which led them to their conclusion. Along with their research, recent studies have come to similar conclusions, finding footprints dating back 23,000 years. This reinforces Scott’s conclusions that the Jomons were not the most likely ancestors of the early Native Americans.

The results of this study provide yet another reason for researchers to continue looking for clues about early Native Americans. As of yet, scientists still don’t know when and who first traveled to the North American continent.

The study is published in the journal PaleoAmerica.


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How do cities affect mental health? New genetic study reveals complex link https://geneticscienceservices.com/how-do-cities-affect-mental-health-new-genetic-study-reveals-complex-link/ https://geneticscienceservices.com/how-do-cities-affect-mental-health-new-genetic-study-reveals-complex-link/#respond Sun, 07 Nov 2021 15:00:25 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/how-do-cities-affect-mental-health-new-genetic-study-reveals-complex-link/ New search suggests that there is a link between the genetic risk of psychiatric disorders and the likelihood of living in cities. Previous studies support the stress of living in a city, along with exposure to things like pollution, is a risk factor for mental health problems like schizophrenia. Cities are generally associated with higher […]]]>

New search suggests that there is a link between the genetic risk of psychiatric disorders and the likelihood of living in cities.

Previous studies support the stress of living in a city, along with exposure to things like pollution, is a risk factor for mental health problems like schizophrenia. Cities are generally associated with higher rates of mental health problems – the Why, however, is up for debate.

In a study published in October in the journal JAMA Psychiatry, researchers are finding that a person’s genetic risk for mental health problems can influence where a person chooses to live. This is not to say that the environment does not play a role in the development of mental health problems. Instead, the study team is calling for more integrated approaches when it comes to exploring and treating the causes of these conditions – therapeutic steps that take into account all of the factors that result in a diagnosis. .

Above all, carrying this genetic risk does not mean that a person To a mental health problem – and the majority of people in the sample of 385,793 people did not have a diagnosis. Overall, when the research team compared people who moved from rural to urban areas to those who stayed in rural areas, they found higher genetic risks of autism, anorexia. , bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. During this time, they found a lower genetic risk for ADHD.

Jonathan Coleman is co-author of this study and lecturer at King’s College London. He says Reverse this research does not negate the detrimental effects of city living on mental health, but rather “supports the idea that people with a greater genetic predisposition to poor mental health are also more likely to move to the city”.

“We would say our research shows that the influences on mental health are nuanced,” says Coleman. “Environmental and genetic factors can have important effects, and we need to take an integrated approach to understand these effects.”

The connection between genes and where you live

Coleman and his colleagues looked at genetic data from people aged 37 to 73 who participated in the UK Biobank project.

A commuter crosses London. The participants in this study were from the United Kingdom.Léon Neal / Getty Images

This study is based on a specific population. Because cities, and the reason people choose to live in cities, are different all over the world, “there is good reason to believe that the genetic and environmental influences of cities on mental health can vary between they”.

The team calculated the polygenetic risk score for each participant for various mental health issues. A polygenetic risk score is a measure of disease risk based on a person’s genes – it’s an estimate and most people have some level of genetic risk for mental health issues.

The scores were compared to data associated with:

  • Where study participants live
  • Where they moved
  • The population density of these places, based on UK census data

Overall, the study team writes, these “findings suggest that a high genetic risk for a variety of psychiatric disorders may affect an individual’s choice of residence.”

Mental health and why people move – “Where an individual lives is obviously a very complex issue, influenced by both things under their control and things outside of their control,” Coleman explains.

You can move to a city to further your education, to get closer to better health care, or because you’ve found a new job. And while many of these things have been shown to be linked to genetics, DNA is only part of the recipe. Genes can inform an executive about how one behaves, but the environment is arguably what determines the actual outcome.

Moving to cities, Coleman points out, can also carry a certain degree of risk, as genetic influences on risk-taking could influence that decision. “Overall, there are many factors that contribute to moving to a city,” he says, “and many of them can be influenced in part by genetic variation.”

Apparently the situation, alongside studies that found city dwellers more likely to develop mental health issues, is other studies that suggest that cities can actually benefit mental health because cities offer the type of social interactions that contribute to mental health.

So what exactly is going on? Ultimately, research like that presented in the JAMA Psychiatry One study suggests there’s more to this link between genes and city life than we previously thought – and that’s something to probe if we’re serious about improving our mental health support.

This understanding can be integrated with this broader understanding that physical and social factors also influence mental health.


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Large-scale genetic study reveals new clues about common origins of irritable bowel syndrome and mental health disorders https://geneticscienceservices.com/large-scale-genetic-study-reveals-new-clues-about-common-origins-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-mental-health-disorders/ https://geneticscienceservices.com/large-scale-genetic-study-reveals-new-clues-about-common-origins-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-mental-health-disorders/#respond Fri, 05 Nov 2021 16:50:00 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/large-scale-genetic-study-reveals-new-clues-about-common-origins-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-mental-health-disorders/ IBS is a common condition around the world, affecting about 1 in 10 people and causing a wide range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, and intestinal dysfunction that can dramatically affect people’s lives. The diagnosis is usually made after examining other possible conditions (such as Crohn’s disease or bowel cancer), with clinical tests returning […]]]>

IBS is a common condition around the world, affecting about 1 in 10 people and causing a wide range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, and intestinal dysfunction that can dramatically affect people’s lives. The diagnosis is usually made after examining other possible conditions (such as Crohn’s disease or bowel cancer), with clinical tests returning to “normal”. The disease is often familial and is also more common in people prone to anxiety. The causes of IBS are not well understood, but an international team of researchers has now identified several genes that provide clues to the origins of IBS.

The research team, comprising over 40 institutions and coordinated by scientists in the UK and Spain, examined genetic data from 40,548 people with IBS from UK Biobank and 12,852 from the Bellygenes initiative (a global study to identify genes linked to IBS) and compared them to 433,201 people without IBS (controls), focusing on individuals of European descent. The results were repeated with anonymized data from genomics company 23andMe Inc., provided by clients who consented to the research, comparing 205,252 people with IBS to 1,384,055 controls.

The results showed that overall, the heritability of IBS (how well your genes influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease) is quite low, indicating the importance of environmental factors such as diet, stress and behavioral patterns that can also be shared in the family environment.

However, 6 genetic differences (influencing the NCAM1, CADM2, PHF2 / FAM120A, DOCK9, CKAP2 / TPTE2P3 and BAG6 genes) were more common in people with IBS than in controls. As the symptoms of IBS affect the gut and gut, one would expect genes associated with an increased risk of IBS to be expressed there – but that’s not what the researchers found. Instead, most of the altered genes seem to have clearer roles in the brain and perhaps the nerves that supply the gut, rather than the gut itself.

Researchers also looked for an overlap between susceptibility to IBS and other physical and mental health problems. They found that the same genetic makeup that puts people at increased risk for IBS also increases the risk of common mood and anxiety disorders such as anxiety, depression, and neurosis, as well as insomnia. . However, the researchers stress that this does not mean that the anxiety causes symptoms of IBS or vice versa.

Professor Miles Parkes, senior researcher and consultant gastroenterologist for the study, University of Cambridge, explained: “IBS is a common problem and its symptoms are real and debilitating. Although IBS occurs more frequently in those who are prone to anxiety, we don’t believe that one causes the other – our study shows that these conditions have common genetic origins, with affected genes that can lead to physical changes. in the brain or nerve cells which in turn cause symptoms in the brain and symptoms in the gut.

The study also found that people with both IBS and anxiety were more likely to have been frequently treated with antibiotics during childhood. The study authors hypothesize that repeated use of antibiotics during childhood could increase the risk of IBS (and possibly anxiety) by altering the “normal” gut flora (healthy bacteria that live normally in the gut) which in turn influence nerve cell development and mood.

Current treatments for IBS vary widely and include dietary changes, prescription drugs targeting the gut or brain, or behavioral interventions. Lead author Chris Eijsbouts of the University of Oxford suggests that the discovery of genes that contribute to IBS may help in the development of new long-term treatments. He said: “Even genetic changes that have only subtle effects on IBS can provide clues as to which pathways to target therapeutically. Unlike individual genetic modifications themselves, drugs targeting the pathways they tell us about can have a dramatic impact on disease, as we know from other disease areas.

Co-principal investigator Dr Luke Jostins of the University of Oxford said: “We anticipate that future research will build on our findings, both by studying the identified target genes and by exploring the genetic risk. shared between conditions to improve understanding of disordered brain and gut interactions. that characterize IBS.

“The IBS presents a remarkable challenge for genetic studies. These first results are long overdue and finally tell us that this type of research is worth it, ”added Professor Ikerbasque Mauro D’Amato from CIC bioGUNE, co-principal investigator and coordinator of the Bellygenes initiative.

This research received funding and support from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centers in Cambridge, Oxford, Nottingham and Manchester. Additional funding and support has been received from the Wellcome Trust, the Li Ka Shing Foundation and the Kennedy Trust for Rheumatology Research in the UK, and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Instituto Salud Carlos III), of the Department of Health of the Basque government and the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsradet).

Reference

Eijsbouts, C et al. Genome-wide analysis of 53,400 people with irritable bowel syndrome highlights genetic pathways shared with mood and anxiety disorders. Genetics of nature; November 5, 2021; DOI: 10.1038 / s41588-021-00950-8

Adapted from a press release from the National Institute for Health Research


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Scientific news | New genetic study of heart defects, autism discovers new genes responsible https://geneticscienceservices.com/scientific-news-new-genetic-study-of-heart-defects-autism-discovers-new-genes-responsible/ https://geneticscienceservices.com/scientific-news-new-genetic-study-of-heart-defects-autism-discovers-new-genes-responsible/#respond Fri, 05 Nov 2021 09:08:08 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/scientific-news-new-genetic-study-of-heart-defects-autism-discovers-new-genes-responsible/ New Haven (Connecticut) [US]Nov. 5 (ANI): In a new study, researchers have identified nearly two dozen genes that contribute to heart defects by studying genetic data from people born with congenital heart disease or autism. Hongyu Zhao of Yale University and his colleagues have developed a new algorithm to analyze genetic data for associated conditions, […]]]>

New Haven (Connecticut) [US]Nov. 5 (ANI): In a new study, researchers have identified nearly two dozen genes that contribute to heart defects by studying genetic data from people born with congenital heart disease or autism.

Hongyu Zhao of Yale University and his colleagues have developed a new algorithm to analyze genetic data for associated conditions, which they describe in an article published in the journal “PLOS Genetics”.

Read also | Andhra Pradesh: Seven dead in two separate traffic accidents on NH44 in Anantapur.

Multiple diseases that start early in life appear to be linked to mutations in the same genes. Recent research into de novo mutations, new mutations that appear in children and were not present in parents, has shown a link between congenital heart defects and autism. However, sequencing mutations de novo is expensive, so small studies of individual diseases have limited power to identify genes that increase a person’s risk of disease.

In the new study, researchers developed an algorithm called M-DATA (Multi-trait De novo mutation Association Test with Annotations) that combines sequencing data from people with related conditions to identify genes that contribute to the disease. They applied the new method to genetic data from people with congenital heart disease or autism and were able to identify 23 congenital heart disease genes, 12 of which were previously unknown.

Read also | Eternals: Forget Harry Styles’ Eros, Marvel Film’s post-credit scene hides a secret superhero cameo you definitely missed! (SPOIL ALERT).

The researchers conclude that M-DATA is more effective at identifying genes that increase a person’s risk than analyzes focusing on a single disease. Indeed, instead of analyzing a small number of genomes of affected individuals, M-DATA analyzes a larger number of combined genomes of several groups of people. The new method can help researchers identify previously unknown genes linked to the disease and improve our understanding of the cause and potential treatment of different conditions.

Zhao adds, “By jointly analyzing de novo mutations in congenital heart disease (CHD) and autism, we have identified new genes that may play an important role in explaining the common genetic etiology of coronary heart disease and autism. “

Yuhan Xie, the principal research student, says, “As a student of biostatistics it is very motivating to find what could be meaningful for patients and their families. “(ANI)

(This is an unedited, auto-generated story from the Syndicated News Feed, the staff at LatestLY may not have edited or edited the body of the content)


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New genetic study of heart defects, autism discovers new genes responsible https://geneticscienceservices.com/new-genetic-study-of-heart-defects-autism-discovers-new-genes-responsible-2/ Fri, 05 Nov 2021 07:00:00 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/new-genetic-study-of-heart-defects-autism-discovers-new-genes-responsible-2/ ANI | Update: 05 November 2021 14:27 STI New Haven (Connecticut) [US]Nov. 5 (ANI): In a new study, researchers have identified nearly two dozen genes that contribute to heart defects by studying genetic data from people born with congenital heart disease or autism.Hongyu Zhao of Yale University and his colleagues have developed a new algorithm […]]]>



ANI |
Update:
05 November 2021 14:27 STI

New Haven (Connecticut) [US]Nov. 5 (ANI): In a new study, researchers have identified nearly two dozen genes that contribute to heart defects by studying genetic data from people born with congenital heart disease or autism.
Hongyu Zhao of Yale University and his colleagues have developed a new algorithm to analyze genetic data for associated conditions, which they describe in an article published in the journal “PLOS Genetics”.
Several diseases that start early in life appear to be linked to mutations in the same genes. Recent research into de novo mutations, new mutations that appear in children and were not present in parents, has shown a link between congenital heart defects and autism. However, sequencing mutations de novo is expensive, so small studies of individual diseases have limited power to identify genes that increase a person’s risk of disease.

In the new study, researchers developed an algorithm called M-DATA (Multi-trait De novo mutation Association Test with Annotations) that combines sequencing data from people with related conditions to identify genes that contribute to the disease. They applied the new method to genetic data from people with congenital heart disease or autism and were able to identify 23 congenital heart disease genes, 12 of which were previously unknown.
The researchers conclude that M-DATA is more effective at identifying genes that increase a person’s risk than analyzes focusing on a single disease. Indeed, instead of analyzing a small number of genomes of affected individuals, M-DATA analyzes a larger number of combined genomes of several groups of people. The new method can help researchers identify previously unknown genes linked to the disease and improve our understanding of the cause and potential treatment of different conditions.
Zhao adds, “By jointly analyzing de novo mutations in congenital heart disease (CHD) and autism, we have identified new genes that may play an important role in explaining the common genetic etiology of coronary heart disease and autism. “
Yuhan Xie, the principal research student, says, “As a student of biostatistics it is very motivating to find what could be meaningful for patients and their families. “(ANI)


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New genetic study of heart defects, autism discovers new genes responsible https://geneticscienceservices.com/new-genetic-study-of-heart-defects-autism-discovers-new-genes-responsible/ Fri, 05 Nov 2021 07:00:00 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/new-genetic-study-of-heart-defects-autism-discovers-new-genes-responsible/ In a new study, researchers have identified nearly two dozen genes that contribute to heart defects by studying genetic data from people born with congenital heart disease or autism. Hongyu Zhao of Yale University and his colleagues have developed a new algorithm to analyze genetic data for associated conditions, which they describe in an article […]]]>

In a new study, researchers have identified nearly two dozen genes that contribute to heart defects by studying genetic data from people born with congenital heart disease or autism. Hongyu Zhao of Yale University and his colleagues have developed a new algorithm to analyze genetic data for associated conditions, which they describe in an article published in the journal “PLOS Genetics”.

Several diseases that start early in life appear to be linked to mutations in the same genes. Recent research into de novo mutations, new mutations that appear in children and were not present in parents, has shown a link between congenital heart defects and autism. However, sequencing mutations de novo is expensive, so small studies of individual diseases have limited power to identify genes that increase a person’s risk of disease. In the new study, researchers developed an algorithm called M-DATA (Multi-trait De novo mutation Association Test with Annotations) that combines sequencing data from people with related conditions to identify genes that contribute to the disease. They applied the new method to genetic data from people with congenital heart disease or autism and were able to identify 23 congenital heart disease genes, 12 of which were previously unknown.

The researchers conclude that M-DATA is more effective at identifying genes that increase a person’s risk than analyzes focusing on a single disease. Indeed, instead of analyzing a small number of genomes of affected individuals, M-DATA analyzes a larger number of combined genomes of several groups of people. The new method can help researchers identify previously unknown genes linked to the disease and improve our understanding of the cause and potential treatment of different conditions. Zhao adds, “By jointly analyzing de novo mutations in congenital heart disease (CHD) and autism, we have identified new genes that may play an important role in explaining the common genetic etiology of coronary heart disease and autism. “

Yuhan Xie, the senior research student, says, “As a student of biostatistics it is very motivating to find what could be meaningful for patients and their families. “(ANI)

(This story was not edited by Devdiscourse staff and is auto-generated from a syndicated feed.)


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People invited to participate in genetic study of Scottish traveler community https://geneticscienceservices.com/people-invited-to-participate-in-genetic-study-of-scottish-traveler-community-2/ https://geneticscienceservices.com/people-invited-to-participate-in-genetic-study-of-scottish-traveler-community-2/#respond Fri, 29 Oct 2021 07:53:52 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/people-invited-to-participate-in-genetic-study-of-scottish-traveler-community-2/ People who have two or more grandparents from the Scottish traveler community are invited to participate in the group’s first genetic study. Researchers at the University of Edinburgh seek to understand how Scottish travelers relate to Irish travelers, English gypsies and Welsh cabbages, as well as those from sedentary communities. Participants will be asked to […]]]>

People who have two or more grandparents from the Scottish traveler community are invited to participate in the group’s first genetic study.

Researchers at the University of Edinburgh seek to understand how Scottish travelers relate to Irish travelers, English gypsies and Welsh cabbages, as well as those from sedentary communities.

Participants will be asked to provide a saliva sample for genetic testing, as well as complete a survey about their health and lifestyle.

Previous research has helped define the Irish traveler community as a distinct ethnic group, the university said.

Principal investigator Professor Jim Wilson said: “Scottish traveler groups have never been involved in studies using the power of modern genetics. I was delighted to be invited by representatives of this community to conduct a study that will reveal how Traveler communities fit into the genetic landscape of Scotland and the British Isles.

Samantha Donaldson, a Scottish traveler from Dunfermline and a member of the study’s public participation panel, said: “For us travelers, also known as Nacken, this study could be very useful.

“There are many myths surrounding our origins, so the study could potentially prove or disprove some of these stories. Travelers have some of the biggest health inequalities in Scotland.

“If we are genetically predisposed to certain conditions more than other groups, or if we have diseases that are more likely to affect us,

then health professionals may be able to use data to address some of these inequalities. ”


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Genetic study on the origins of the mummies of the Tarim basin – HeritageDaily https://geneticscienceservices.com/genetic-study-on-the-origins-of-the-mummies-of-the-tarim-basin-heritagedaily/ https://geneticscienceservices.com/genetic-study-on-the-origins-of-the-mummies-of-the-tarim-basin-heritagedaily/#respond Wed, 27 Oct 2021 16:20:54 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/genetic-study-on-the-origins-of-the-mummies-of-the-tarim-basin-heritagedaily/ Buried in boat coffins in an otherwise barren desert, the mummies of the Tarim Basin have long intrigued scientists and inspired many theories as to their enigmatic origins. Since the late 1990s, the discovery of hundreds of naturally mummified human remains dating from around 2000 BC. their agro-pastoral economy. The cattle-driven economy and unusual physical […]]]>

Buried in boat coffins in an otherwise barren desert, the mummies of the Tarim Basin have long intrigued scientists and inspired many theories as to their enigmatic origins.

Since the late 1990s, the discovery of hundreds of naturally mummified human remains dating from around 2000 BC. their agro-pastoral economy.

The cattle-driven economy and unusual physical appearance of the Tarim Basin mummies had led some researchers to speculate that they were the descendants of the migrating shepherds of Yamnaya, a highly mobile Bronze Age society from the steppes of the Black Sea region in southern Russia. Others have placed their origins among the Central Asian desert oasis cultures of the Bactriane-Margiane Archaeological Complex (BMAC), a group with strong genetic links to the early farmers of the Iranian plateau.

To better understand the origin of the founding population of the mummies of the Tarim basin and who first colonized the region on sites such as Xiaohe and Gumugou around 2000 BC. mummies, dating from around 2,100 to 1,700 BC, as well as five individuals dating from around 3,000 to 2,800 BC in the nearby Dzungarian Basin. This is the first genomic-scale study of prehistoric populations in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and it includes the first human remains found in the region.

The mummies of the Tarim basin were not new to the region

To their surprise, the researchers discovered that the mummies of the Tarim Basin were not new to the area at all, but rather appeared to be direct descendants of a once widespread Pleistocene population that had largely disappeared in the end of the last ice age. This population, known as the Ancient Northern Eurasians (ANEs), survives only partially in the genomes of present-day populations, with the indigenous populations of Siberia and the Americas having the highest known proportions at around 40%. Unlike populations today, the Tarim Basin mummies show no evidence of mixing with other Holocene groups, instead forming a previously unknown genetic isolate that has likely suffered an extreme and prolonged genetic bottleneck. before settling in the Tarim basin.

Image Credit: Wenying Li, Xinjiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology

“Archaeogeneticists have long researched Holocene ANE populations in order to better understand the genetic history of Inner Eurasia. We found one in the most unexpected place, ”said Choongwon Jeong, lead author of the study and professor of biological sciences at Seoul National University.

Unlike the Tarim Basin, the early inhabitants of the nearby Dzungarian Basin descended not only from the local people but also from the herdsmen of the Western Steppes, namely the Afanasievo, a group of pastoralists with strong genetic ties to the Early Bronze Age Yamanya.

The genetic characterization of the Dzungarians of the Early Bronze Age also helped clarify the ancestry of other pastoral groups known as the Chemurchek, who then spread north to the Altai Mountains and in Mongolia. The Chemurchek groups appear to be the descendants of the Early Bronze Age Dzungarians and the Central Asian groups of the Inner Asian Mountain Corridor (IAMC), who derive their ancestry from both local people and BMAC agropastoralists. .

“These results add to our understanding of the eastward dispersal of Yamnaya ancestry and the scenarios in which mixing occurred when they first encountered the populations of Inner Asia,” said Chao. Ning, co-lead author of the study and professor in the School of Archeology and Museology at Peking University.

The Tarim Basin groups were genetically but not culturally isolated

These discoveries of genetic mixing extended all around the Tarim basin throughout the Bronze Age make it all the more remarkable that the mummies of the Tarim basin presented no evidence of genetic mixing. However, while the Tarim Basin groups were genetically isolated, they were not culturally isolated. Proteomic analysis of their dental calculus confirmed that dairy production of cattle, sheep and goats was already practiced by the founding population and that they were well aware of the different cultures, cuisines and technologies that surrounded them.

“Despite their genetic isolation, the Bronze Age peoples of the Tarim Basin were remarkably culturally cosmopolitan – they built their cuisine around the wheat and dairy products of West Asia, millet from Asia from the West. ‘East and central Asian medicinal plants like ephedra,’ says Christina Warinner. , lead author of the study, professor of anthropology at Harvard University and research group leader at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.

“Reconstructing the origins of the Tarim Basin mummies has had a transformative effect on our understanding of the region, and we will continue to study ancient human genomes in other eras to better understand the history of human migration in the steppes. Eurasian, ”adds Yinquiu Cui, lead author of the study and professor at the School of Life Sciences at Jilin University.

MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR EVOLUTIONARY ANTHROPOLOGY

Header Image – Aerial View of Xiaohe Cemetery – Image Credit: Wenying Li, Xinjiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology


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People invited to participate in genetic study of Scottish traveler community https://geneticscienceservices.com/people-invited-to-participate-in-genetic-study-of-scottish-traveler-community/ https://geneticscienceservices.com/people-invited-to-participate-in-genetic-study-of-scottish-traveler-community/#respond Fri, 15 Oct 2021 04:01:42 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/people-invited-to-participate-in-genetic-study-of-scottish-traveler-community/ People who have two or more grandparents from the Scottish traveler community are invited to participate in the group’s first genetic study. Researchers at the University of Edinburgh seek to understand how Scottish travelers relate to Irish travelers, English gypsies and Welsh cabbages, as well as those from sedentary communities. Participants will be asked to […]]]>

People who have two or more grandparents from the Scottish traveler community are invited to participate in the group’s first genetic study.

Researchers at the University of Edinburgh seek to understand how Scottish travelers relate to Irish travelers, English gypsies and Welsh cabbages, as well as those from sedentary communities.

Participants will be asked to provide a saliva sample for genetic testing, as well as complete a survey about their health and lifestyle.

Previous research has helped define the Irish traveler community as a distinct ethnic group, the university said.

Principal investigator Professor Jim Wilson said: “Scottish traveler groups have never been involved in studies using the power of modern genetics. I was delighted to be invited by representatives of this community to conduct a study that will reveal how Traveler communities fit into the genetic landscape of Scotland and the British Isles.

Samantha Donaldson, a Scottish traveler from Dunfermline and a member of the study’s public participation panel, said: “For us travelers, also known as Nacken, this study could be very useful.

“There are many myths surrounding our origins, so the study could potentially prove or disprove some of these stories. Travelers have some of the biggest health inequalities in Scotland.

“If we are genetically predisposed to certain conditions more than other groups, or if we have diseases that are more likely to affect us,

then health professionals may be able to use the data to address some of these inequalities. ”


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Genetic study explores why human pregnancy is unique https://geneticscienceservices.com/genetic-study-explores-why-human-pregnancy-is-unique-2/ https://geneticscienceservices.com/genetic-study-explores-why-human-pregnancy-is-unique-2/#respond Thu, 14 Oct 2021 12:09:55 +0000 https://geneticscienceservices.com/genetic-study-explores-why-human-pregnancy-is-unique-2/ A new study looks at the evolutionary history of pregnancy, identifying hundreds of genes that have evolved to be turned on or off in the uterus of humans during early pregnancy, unlike a range of other animals. The suite of genes identified include those believed to contribute to cell-to-cell communication, the regulation of the immune […]]]>

A new study looks at the evolutionary history of pregnancy, identifying hundreds of genes that have evolved to be turned on or off in the uterus of humans during early pregnancy, unlike a range of other animals.

The suite of genes identified include those believed to contribute to cell-to-cell communication, the regulation of the immune response and inflammation, and the ability of the human placenta to sink deep into the uterine wall. Such functions are important for the health of a pregnancy, in which the mother must harbor and coexist with a fetus containing foreign cells.

The findings help shed light on what makes human pregnancy uniquely human – an intriguing question, as human pregnancy is quite unusual compared to pregnancy in many other animals, says Vincent Lynch, associate professor of biological sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, and editor of the article. author.

“Pregnancy in humans is different from pregnancy in other animals,” he says. “Human pregnancy lasts longer than it should. Labor and childbirth take longer than it should. The human placenta is really, really invasive. It sinks much deeper into the lining of the uterus than in other animals. And adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as premature birth and preeclampsia, appear to be much more common in humans than in other animals. “

The study was published on October 8 in eLife. The research was led by biologists Katie Mika and Mirna Marinić at the University of Chicago; Manvendra Singh at Cornell University and Lynch at UB. Co-authors include Joanne Muter and Jan Joris Brosens of Coventry & Warwickshire University Hospitals and the University of Warwick.

Data from the project could lay the groundwork for future studies to understand, prevent and treat various adverse pregnancy outcomes, demonstrating the power of the emerging field of evolutionary medicine.

Research has compared the activity of genes in the uterine lining of humans to that of other animals during pregnancy or while carrying eggs, including lizards, birds, monkeys and marsupials, and the platypus. . The study identified hundreds of genes that gained or lost uterine expression in the human lineage, focusing on the first trimester of pregnancy.

As the study reports, genes that have evolved to be turned on and off in the human uterus are “enriched in immune functions, signaling processes, and genes associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as infertility, recurrent spontaneous abortions, pre-eclampsia and premature birth. These genes include those that may contribute to a previously unknown maternal-fetal communication system (HTR2B), increase maternal-fetal immunotolerance (PDCD1LG2, also known as PD-L2), and promote vascular remodeling and deep invasion of the placenta (CORIN).

“Our article really highlights the useful role of evolutionary techniques in translational research,” says Mika, postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Human Genetics and the Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy at the University of Chicago. “The three genes we have identified (HTR2B, PDCD1LG2 and CORIN) will advance work on signaling systems at the crucial mother-to-fetal interface, which impact the success and health of a pregnancy.”

“I was particularly intrigued by our discovery that the genes recruited were enriched in a serotonin signaling pathway,” says Marinić, postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Human Genetics and in the Department of Organism Biology and Anatomy. ‘University of Chicago. “Other researchers have already pointed out the potential role of serotonin and its derivatives at the onset of labor. I would be curious to study further what is the exact molecular mechanism by which serotonin influences the time of birth.

And although the article shows how evolutionary research can provide essential information for medicine, Lynch says simple curiosity is one of his main motivations as a scientist. “We just want to know how evolution works. We are humans, so we want to know why humans are the way we are. Human pregnancy is really weird, so we want to understand what this weirdness is. “

Singh, a postdoctoral researcher in molecular biology and genetics at Cornell, also commented on the importance of the findings. “In human pregnancies, the regulation of immunotolerance remains an enigma, especially when the invasion of embryonic tissues is deeper than in the closest relatives of humans. It was remarkable to notice that over 900 genes are uniquely expressed during human pregnancy, ”Singh said. “This observation suggests that rewiring the regulatory sequences of these genes altered developmental processes and promoted healthy human pregnancy.

“By digging deeper, we also discovered that these genes have established functions to regulate immune responses and hormonal controls; for example, a serotonin receptor, mediators of interferon production, etc. As serotonin is produced and released by the brain, it is tempting to speculate that some of these genes may be involved in communication with the brain during pregnancy, ”Singh explains. “Overall, while this study is of great clinical relevance, it also opens up multiple avenues for research on the mother-fetus interface.”

This study was funded by grants from the March of Dimes Chicago-Northwestern-Duke Prematurity Research Center and the Burroughs Welcome Fund Preterm Birth Initiative.


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